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 Tracing A Hacker

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PostSubject: Tracing A Hacker   Mon May 11, 2009 3:18 pm

Topic no (ai0001)

HOw to trace a Hacker??

Sometimes, it's just not enough to simply know that there's a Trojan or Virus onboard. Sometimes you need to know exactly why that file is onboard, how it got there - but most importantly, who put it there.

By enumerating the attacker in the same way that they have enumerated the victim, you will be able to see the bigger picture and establish what you're up against. But how can you do this? Read on...

## Connections make the world go round ##

The computer world, at any rate. Every single time you open up a website, send an email or upload your webpages into cyberspace, you are connecting to another machine in order to get the job done. This, of course, presents a major problem, because this simple act is what allows malicious users to target a machine in the first place.

# How do these people find their victim?

Well, first of all, they need to get hold of the victim's IP Address. Your IP (Internet Protocol) address reveals your point of entry to the Internet and can be used in many ways to cause your online activities many, many problems. It may not reveal you by name, but it may be uniquely identifiable and it represents your digital ID while you are online (especially so if you're on a fixed IP / DSL etc).

With an IP address, a Hacker can find out all sorts of weird and wonderful things about their victim (as well as causing all kinds of other trouble, the biggest two being Portnukes/Trojans and the dreaded DoS ((Denial of Service)) attack). Some Hackers like to collect IP Addresses like badges, and like to go back to old targets, messing them around every so often. An IP address is incredibly easy to obtain - until recently, many realtime chat applications (such as MSN) were goldmines of information. Your IP Address is contained as part of the Header Code on all emails that you send and webpages that you visit can store all kinds of information about you. A common trick is for the Hacker to go into a Chatroom, paste his supposed website address all over the place, and when the unsuspecting victim visits, everything about your computer from the operating system to the screen resolution can be logged...and, of course, the all important IP address. In addition, a simple network-wide port scan will reveal vulnerable target machines, and a war-dialler will scan thousands of lines for exposed modems that the hacker can exploit.

So now that you know some of the basic dangers, you're probably wondering how these people connect to a victim's machine?

## Virtual and Physical Ports ##

Everything that you recieve over the Internet comes as a result of other machines connecting to your computer's ports. You have two types; Physical are the holes in the back of your machine, but the important ones are Virtual. These allow transfer of data between your computer and the outside world, some with allocated functions, some without, but knowing how these work is the first step to discovering who is attacking you; you simply MUST have a basic knowledge of this, or you won't get much further.

# What the phrases TCP/UDP actually mean

TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol, a TCP/IP packet is a block of data which is compressed, then a header is put on it and it is sent to another computer (UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol). This is how ALL internet transfers occur, by sending packets. The header in a packet contains the IP address of the one who originally sent you it. Now, your computer comes with an excellent (and free) tool that allows you to see anything that is connected (or is attempting to connect) to you, although bear in mind that it offers no blocking protection; it simply tells you what is going on, and that tool is NETSTAT.

## Netstat: Your first line of defence ##

Netstat is a very fast and reliable method of seeing exactly who or what is connected (or connecting) to your computer. Open up DOS (Start/Programs/MS-DOS Prompt on most systems), and in the MSDOS Prompt, type:

netstat -a

(make sure you include the space inbetween the "t" and the "a").

If you're connected to the Internet when you do this, you should see something like:
Quote:
Active Connections

Proto Local Address Foreign Address State
TCP macintosh: 20034 modem-123.tun.dialup.co.uk: 50505 ESTABLISHED
TCP macintosh: 80 proxy.webcache.eng.sq: 30101 TIME_WAIT
TCP macintosh MACINTOSH: 0 LISTENING
TCP macintosh MACINTOSH: 0 LISTENING
TCP macintosh MACINTOSH: 0 LISTENING


Now, "Proto(col)" simply means what kind of data transmission is taking place (TCP or UDP), "Local address" is your computer (and the number next to it tells you what port you're connected on), "Foreign Address" is the machine that is connected to you (and what port they're using), and finally "State" is simply whether or not a connection is actually established, or whether the machine in question is waiting for a transmission, or timing out etc.

Now, you need to know all of Netstat's various commands, so type:

netstat ?

You will get something like this:
Quote:
Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections.

NETSTAT [-a] [-e] [-n] [-s] [-p proto] [-r] [interval]

-a Displays all connections and listening ports.
-e Displays Ethernet statistics. This may be combined with the -s option.
-n Displays addresses and port numbers in numerical form.
-p proto Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto; proto may be TCP or UDP. If used with the -s option to display per-protocol statistics, proto may be TCP, UDP, or IP.
-r Displays the routing table.
-s Displays per-protocol statistics. By default, statistics are shown for TCP, UDP and IP; the -p option may be used to specify a subset of the default.



Have a play around with the various options, but the most important use of these methods is when you combine them. The best command to use is

netstat -an

because this will list all connections in Numerical Form, which makes it a lot easier to trace malicious users....Hostnames can be a little confusing if you don't know what you're doing (although they're easily understandable, as we shall see later). Also, by doing this, you can also find out what your own IP address is, which is always useful.

Also,

netstat -b

will tell you what ports are open and what programs are connecting to the internet.

## Types of Port ##

It would be impossible to find out who was attacking you if computers could just access any old port to perform an important function; how could you tell a mail transfer from a Trojan Attack? Well, good news, because your regular, normal connections are assigned to low, commonly used ports, and in general, the higher the number used, the more you should be suspicious. Here are the three main types of port:

# Well Known PortsThese run from 0 to 1023, and are bound to the common services that run on them (for example, mail runs on channel 25 tcp/udp, which is smtp (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) so if you find one of these ports open (and you usually will), it's usually because of an essential function.

# Registered PortsThese run on 1024 to 49151. Although not bound to a particular service, these are normally used by networking utilities like FTP software, Email client and so on, and they do this by opening on a random port within this range before communicating with the remote server, so don't panic (just be wary, perhaps) if you see any of these open, because they usually close automatically when the system that's running on them terminates (for example, type in a common website name in your browser with netstat open, and watch as it opens up a port at random to act as a buffer for the remote servers). Services like MSN Messenger and ICQ usually run on these Ports.

# Dynamic/Private PortsRanging from 49152 to 65535, these things are rarely used except with certain programs, and even then not very often. This is indeed the usual range of the Trojan, so if you find any of these open, be very suspicious. So, just to recap:
Quote:
Well Known Ports 0 to 1023 Commonly used, little danger.
Registered Ports 1024 to 49151 Not as common, just be careful.
Dynamic/Private Ports 49152 to 65535 Be extremely suspicious.


## The hunt is on ##

Now, it is essential that you know what you're looking for, and the most common way someone will attack your machine is with a Trojan. This is a program that is sent to you in an email, or attempts to bind itself to one of your ports, and when activated, it can give the user your passwords, access to your hard drive...they can even make your CD Tray pop open and shut. At the end of this Document, you will find a list of the most commonly used Trojans and the ports they operate on. For now, let's take another look at that first example of Netstat....
Quote:
Active Connections

Proto Local Address Foreign Address State
TCP macintosh: 27374 modem-123.tun.dialup.co.uk: 50505 ESTABLISHED
TCP macintosh: 80 proxy.webcache.eng.sq: 30101 TIME_WAIT
TCP macintosh MACINTOSH: 0 LISTENING
TCP macintosh MACINTOSH: 0 LISTENING
TCP macintosh MACINTOSH: 0 LISTENING Now, straight away, this should make more sense to you. Your computer is connected on two ports, 80 and 27374. Port 80 is used for http/www transmissions (ie for all intents and purposes, its how you connect to the net, although of course it's a lot more complicated than that). Port 27374, however, is distinctly suspicious; first of all, it is in the registered port range, and although other services (like MSN) use these, let's assume that you have nothing at all running like instant messengers, webpages etc....you're simply connected to the net through proxy. So, now this connection is looking even more troublesome, and when you realise that 27374 is a common port for Netbus (a potentially destructive Trojan), you can see that something is untoward here. So, what you would do is:
Quote:
1) run Netstat , and use:

Netstat -a

then

Netstat -an

So you have both Hostnames AND IP addresses.
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KiNGGG



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PostSubject: Re: Tracing A Hacker   Sat Dec 26, 2009 1:51 pm

cheers Hail U Smile
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juicey69



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PostSubject: Re: Tracing A Hacker   Sun Jan 03, 2010 7:09 pm

Nice one dude..... Twisted Evil
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Nikumu



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PostSubject: Re: Tracing A Hacker   Tue Feb 23, 2010 10:40 am

Useful information Smile I've been passively trying to learn much of this over the past.. recent period of time.
But... this is an easily enough avoided process by any skilled hacker (or, in proper terms, cracker), methinks.
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雪狐狸



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PostSubject: Re: Tracing A Hacker   Sat Mar 06, 2010 7:26 am

I think there are also peoples who are using backtrack.

For Unix, you can use nmap : nmap -A ip_address (you can also put the range of machine)
ex : nmap -A 192.168.0.0-255
You can also ping : nmap -sP 192.168.0.0-255.

With that, you can see if people are sniffing your network because ping is a syscall that makes difficult to avoid for computer.
With nmap, you can have informations on the OS, port opened (closed or filtred by a firewall), and a lot of other interesting informations.

You can also use "whois" with the ip address : whois 74.86.93.190.
With whois, you know on which operator the hacker is. And you can also tell to the administrator that someone is attacking you.

However, hackers are not stupid. For example, they can use tor, proxies or botnet in order to avoid to be detected.
For me, i use the connection of someone and i change my mac address.

I think that if you are in front of a real hacker, it will be extremely possible that his ip address doesn't belong to him Wink
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